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28 2010 . N 827

 

 

,

 

2.03.04-84

 

Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Structures intended

for the Service in Elevated and High Temperatures

 

27.13330.2011

 

20 2011

 

 

27 2002 . N 184- " ", - 19 2008 . N 858 " ".

 

 

1. : -, - . .. ( . ) - " "".

2. 465 "".

3. , .

4. ( ) 28 2010 . N 827 20 2011 .

5. (). 27.13330.2010.

 

" ", - " ". () " ". , - ( ) .

 

 

, ( 50 200 C ), , , , ( 200 1200 - 1400 C).

: - () (); - ( ) ( ); , , - (); - / /; - C, - /3.

. .. - " "": - - . , . .. . : - . , . .. .. ; . .. , .. , .. , .. , .. -, .. , .. , .. ; .. , .. ; "" (. . .. ).

 

1.

 

, ( 50 200 C ) ( 200 C) ( - ) .

, 2200 2500 /3 ( - ) 900 /3 .

.

, , 50 C, , .

 

2.

 

:

30 2009 . N 384- " "

 

: .

63.13330.2010 63.13330.2012.

 

63.13330.2010 " 52-01-2003 . "

20.13330.2011 " 2.01.07-85* "

3.03.01-87

23-01-99*

 

: .

28.13330.2010 28.13330.2012.

 

28.13330.2010 " 2.03.11-85 "

16.13330.2011 " II-23-81* "

25192-82 .

13015-2003 .

14098-91 . ,

20910-90 .

5781-82

10884-94

6727-80

4543-71

5949-75 , .

. - " ", 1 , , . (), () . , , , , .

 

3.

 

[1] , .

 

4.

 

 

4.1. : , , . , , .

4.2. , 200 C, , , .

, 250 C , .

, 200 C, .

, , 1000 C, .

4.3. - , 30% 3 30 .

- , 30% .

4.4. , 50 C , , . 20 , 7 , 50 7 .

.

4.5. , . . , ().

4.6. .

20910 , , 5.1.

 

 

4.7. , , 63.13330 [1] , .

, :

( );

( , ).

4.8. , , .

, , , , ( ) 20.13330.

, .

.

: 1,1, 1,0.

, . , , .

4.9. . , , ( ) .

, , , , , , .

4.10. , , , , , , .

:

- ;

- .

( ) . , .

:

) 3.03.01, . ;

) - , . .

4.11. , . , .

4.12. ( 5.1) , :

) N 1 50 250 C - ;

) N 2 - 11, 23 24 200 500 C - , 500 C - 500 C;

) N 12 - 21, 29 30 200 400 C - , 400 C - 400 C.

4.13. .

, , , 23-01. 20910 5.10.

4.14. , , , , 4.12.

, , , 0,92 23-01.

4.15. , , : 1,6 - ; 1,4 - . , , , 1,25.

4.16. , : 1/600 , ; 1/10 10 .

, , .

, .

 

 

4.17. , , [2] 4.18 - 4.23.

4.18. , 5.10.

4.19. :

50 C .................................................. ,

100 C ................................................. ,

150 C ................................................. .

, .

4.20. , , 50 C, :

- ;

- 50 C.

N 1 N 2, 3, 6, 7, 10 11 5.1 [2]. 10 [2].

: - , - .

4.1.

 

4.1

 

-------------------------------------------------T-------------------------

, 蠠

堠 ,

-------------------------------------------------+-------------------------

N 1

N 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11

5.1 :

젠 40

젠 80

젠 60

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

N 1

N 2, 3, 6, 7, 10

11 5.1:

:

                                           

 

                                     

 

                                    

 

:

                                           

 

                                     

 

                                    

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

:

1200 - 1500, 1400,             

𠠠

1500

600, 800, 1000                  

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

               

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

, 4.1:

- 頠 蠠 ,

頠 젠 , 蠠 頠

, 20 C;

- , 頠 5.7

;

- , 5.14;

- , 5.13

.

 

.

1.  蠠

40 C.

2.

, ,

100 C

70 C.

3. 蠠 , 젠 젠 ,

蠠 ,

⠠ 蠠 蠠 򠠠 堠 ,

.

⠠ 젠

15%.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

4.21.

 

, (4.1)

 

M - ;

P - ;

- P ;

- P .

(, , ) 6.16 - 6.21 S S' .

4.22. 6.28 6.37.

8.28.

4.23. , , 8.24.

4.24. 30 , , :

600

 

; (4.2)

 

800

 

; (4.3)

 

1000

 

; (4.4)

 

, 1400, 1500

 

, (4.5)

 

- , % ;

- , C.

(4.2) - (4.5) , 600 210 C, 800 - 220 C, 1000 - 350 C , , 1400, 1500 - 330 C.

4.25. , , .

 

5.

 

 

 

5.1. , , :

- 2200 2500 /3 25192;

900 /3 20910, 5.1.


 

5.1

 

N -

-

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-









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15

1800
1900

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550
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5 - 10

1100 - 1400

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1. 8 - 14 堠

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6
.
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N 1.


 

1100 /3 .

1100 /3 .

5.2. , , , :

) B;

) ( , );

) 20910 ( );

) ( , );

) W ( , );

) F ( , 0 C);

) D ( , , , , ).

5.3. , , :

) :

N 1 N 1 5.1 - 20 60;

5.1:

N 2, 3, 6, 7 - 15 50;

N 10, 11, 21 - 15 40;

N 19, 20 - 15 35;

N 12, 13, 14, 15 - 12,5 25;

N 4, 5, 8, 9, 16 - 18, 23, 29 - 12,5 20;

N 24, 27, 30 - 2 10;

N 22, 24, 30, 32, 35 - 37 - 1 5;

N 25, 28, 31, 32, 34 - 1 3,5;

N 26, 33 - 1 2,5.

. 60 80, - ;

 

) : N 1 N 1 5.1 ;

) :

N 2 - 21, 23 29 5.1 - , , , ;

N 22, 24, 27, 30, 32, 35 - 37 5.1 - , , , .

;

) :

N 1, N 1 N 2 - 21, 23, 29 5.1 - W2, W4, W6, W8.

;

) :

N 1, N 1 N 2 - 21, 23 29 5.1 - F25, F35, F50, F75.

;

) 5.1:

N 4, 8 - D1800;

N 23, 29 - D1700, D1600, D1500;

N 24, 30 - D1400, D1300, D1200;

N 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 33, 36 - D1100;

N 25, 27, 32, 34, 35, 37 - D1000;

N 31, 32 - D900.

.

5.4. , , , . 28 .

, , 13015 - 20910.

, , :

, , - 25;

- 20;

(, , , ) - 30.

5.5. , , 12,5.

, , , , 25.

, :

N 2 - 21, 23 29 5.1 , , :

 

................................................ ;

............................................... ;

, ...... ;

 

N 22, 24, 27, 30, 32, 35 - 37 5.1 , , :

 

................................................ ;

............................................... .

 

N 1 N 2 - 21, 23 29 5.1 :

 

, ,

........ W6;

,

................................................. W10.

 

, , 0 C - , N 1 N 2, 3, 6, 7, 13, 20, 21 5.1 F25.

, , 28.13330 .

, , , :

- ;

- ;

- , 1,5%;

- , 7%.

, , 25 W6 120C W8 120 C.

5.6. , 0,1 , , , 20910.

, 0,1 , .

, , 20910, ().

5.7. , 50.

5.8. , , .

 

 

5.9. , 5.2.

 

5.2

 

-------------------------T-------------------------------------------------------

R R

bn btn

R R

b bt

R R

b,ser bt,ser

( /2)

+-----T----T----T----T----T----T----T----T----T----T----+

12,515 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

+----------T-------------+-----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

堠 R , R 9,5 11,015,018,522,025,529,032,036,039,543,0

堠 btn b,ser

+-------------+-----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

R 7,5 8,5 11,514,517,019,522,025,027,530,033,0

b

+----------+-------------+-----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

R , R 1,0 1,151,351,551,751,952,1 2,252,452,6 2,75

堠 btn bt,ser

+-------------+-----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

R 0,66 0,750,9 1,051,151,3 1,4 1,5 1,6 1,7 1,8

bt

L----------+-------------+-----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----

 

( )

 

, . (5.1)

 

 

. (5.2)

 

(5.1) (5.2) - , B.

5.10. ( 5.2) :

 

; (5.3)

 

. (5.4)

 

:

- ;

- .

:

- ;

- .

:

- ;

- , .

5.11. ( 5.3).

 

5.3

 

---------T-------T---------------T--------------------------------------------

- ࠠ

ࠠ ,

bt tt

 , C

b

5.1 +----T----T----T----T----T----T----T----T----+

50 70 100 200 300 500 700 900 1000

+--------+-------+---------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

1, 1, 2 1,000,850,900,800,65 - - - -

bt頠 1,000,850,900,800,50 - - - -

頠 1,000,650,400,60 - - - - -

0,970,850,65 - - - - - -

+-------+---------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

1,000,700,700,600,40 - - - -

tt頠 1,000,700,700,500,20 - - - -

頠 1,000,500,300,40 - - - - -

0,950,750,60 - - - - - -

+-------+---------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

ࠠ 1,000,900,800,600,40 - - - -

b 頠

頠 1,000,500,200,40 - - - - -

0,950,750,70 - - - - - -

+--------+-------+---------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

3 1,001,001,000,900,80 - - - -

bt頠 1,001,001,000,900,65 - - - -

+-------+---------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

1,000,800,750,650,50 - - - -

tt頠 1,000,800,750,600,35 - - - -

+-------+---------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

ࠠ 1,001,000,900,800,60 - - - -

b 頠

1,000,600,300,50 - - - - -

+--------+-------+---------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

4 - 11, 1,001,001,001,101,000,900,600,300,20

23, 24 bt頠 1,001,001,001,000,700,400,200,060,01

+-------+---------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

1,000,850,800,650,600,500,400,20 -

tt頠 1,000,850,800,650,400,200,06 - -

+-------+---------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

ࠠ 1,001,001,000,900,750,500,320,220,18

b 頠

+--------+-------+---------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

12 - 15, 1,001,001,101,201,201,000,750,400,20

17, 29, bt頠 1,000,800,800,550,350,150,050,01 -

30 +-------+---------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

1,000,950,950,800,700,550,450,15 -

tt頠 1,000,700,700,450,250,06 - - -

+-------+---------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

ࠠ 1,001,101,101,101,000,700,300,100,05

b 頠

+--------+-------+---------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

16, 18 1,001,001,001,001,000,950,850,650,50

bt頠 1,000,900,900,800,500,250,070,020,01

+-------+---------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

1,000,950,950,800,700,550,450,35 -

tt頠 1,000,800,800,700,400,120,02 - -

+-------+---------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

ࠠ 1,001,101,101,101,101,000,700,350,27

b 頠

+--------+-------+---------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

19 - 21 1,000,900,800,700,550,450,350,300,25

bt頠 1,000,900,800,700,500,250,100,050,02

+-------+---------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

1,000,650,550,500,450,350,250,10 -

tt頠 1,000,650,550,500,300,120,02 - -

+-------+---------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

ࠠ 1,000,900,850,700,550,400,330,300,27

b 頠

+--------+-------+---------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

.

1. ,

5 , ࠠ 15%,

bt

ࠠ 頠

bt

.

2. , 蠠

, ࠠ 15%

bt b

ࠠ - 20%.

tt

L------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

:

 

; (5.5)

 

 

. (5.6)

 

5.3 :

(7.1, 7.6, 7.7, 7.12 - 7.14, 7.23, 7.27, 7.28);

- (7.8 - 7.10);

- (6.17);

- (7.29);

- (6.16).

5.12. ( 5.3).

:

 

; (5.7)

 

 

. (5.8)

 

5.3 :

- (7.3, 7.31, 7.35, 7.37, 7.39, 7.53, 7.59);

- (8.3, 8.9, 8.15);

- (9.2);

 

: .

, , : (10.49) .

 

- (10.49).

 

 

5.13. :

;

;

;

( ) ;

;

.

5.14. ( 5.4).

 

5.4

 

--------------------T-------------------------------------------------------

3

/3 Š x 10 ()

( 5.1) b

+-----T----T----T----T----T----T----T----T----T----T----+

12,515 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

+-------------------+-----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

1 - 3, 6, 7, 13, 21,0 24,027,530,032,534,536,037,038,039,039,5

20, 21 -

2200 - 2500

+-------------------+-----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

1 - 3, 6, 7, 20, 2119,0 20,524,027,029,031,032,534,035,036,037,0

-

-

2200 - 2500

+-------------------+-----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

23, 29 13,2 14,014,8 - - - - - -

1500 - 1700

+-------------------+-----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

4, 8, 9 14,7 15,516,3 - - - - - -

1800 - 1900

+-------------------+-----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

5, 10 - 12, 14 - 1917,0 18,019,521,022,023,024,025,0 -

2000 - 2300

L-------------------+-----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----

 

 

. (5.9)

 

5.3 :

(6.16, 6.17, 6.48, 7.19, 8.39);

 

: .

, , : 10.9, 10.11, 10.12, 10.18, 10.29 .

 

- (10.9, 10.11, 10.12, 10.18, 10.29);

- (8.6, 8.7);

- (5.11, 8.47).

5.15.

 

. (5.10)

 

( 5.5).

 

5.5

 

-----------------------T-----------------------------------------

ঠ 蠠

. 5.1 b,cr

, C

+----T----T----T----T----T----T-----T-----+

50 70 100 200 300 500 700 900

+----------------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----+-----+

1 - 3 3,358,0 8,0 10,012,0 - - -

+----------------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----+-----+

4 - 11, 23, 24 3,574,174,175,1 6,3 28,562,5 227,0

+----------------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----+-----+

12 - 18, 29, 30 4,173,704,375,7 7,948,3 150,0333,0

+----------------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----+-----+

19 - 21 2,864,354,554,5516,657,0 - -

L----------------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----+------

 

:

(5.10, 6.16, 6.17, 6.20, 6.21);

- (10.11, 10.12, 10.18, 10.29).

5.16. , - ( 5.1).

 

)

 

 

)

 

 

- ; - ;

1 - 20 C; 2 -

 

5.1.

 

( 5.1, ) :

 

 

 

; (5.11)

 

 

 

; (5.12)

 

 

 

. (5.13)

 

:

 

. (5.14)

 

 

. (5.15)

 

( 5.1, ) :

 

 

 

; (5.16)

 

 

 

. (5.17)

 

 

. (5.18)

 

5.1. .

5.17. 5.6. - - - .


 

5.6

 

---------T-------T-----------T-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

- ࠠ

+---------------------------------------------------T---------------------------------------------------+

, 蠠 蠠

 C +---------------T---------------T-------------------+---------------T---------------T-------------------+

3 3 3 3 3 3

5.1 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10

b0 b2 b1,red b0 b2 b1,red

+--------+-------+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

1 - 3 20 . 2,0 3,5 1,5 0,10 0,15 0,08

+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

3,4 4,8 2,8 0,24 0,31 0,22

+-------+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

100 . 2,5 4,4 1,9 0,17 0,29 0,15

+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

4,3 6,0 3,5 0,3 0,39 0,27

+-------+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

200 . 3,5 6,1 2,6 0,25 0,39 0,20

+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

6,0 8,4 4,9 0,42 0,54 0,38

+--------+-------+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

4 - 11, 20 . 2,0 3,5 1,5 0,10 0,15 0,08

23, 24 +-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

3,4 4,8 2,8 0,24 0,31 0,22

+-------+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

200 . 3,0 4,2 3,0 0,20 0,24 0,16

+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

4,5 6,3 3,8 0,30 0,36 0,20

+-------+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

400 . 4,3 6,0 3,6 0,38 0,52 0,36

+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

6,4 9,0 5,4 0,57 0,78 0,54

+-------+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

600 . 6,4 9,0 5,8 0,44 0,57 0,40

+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

9,6 13,5 8,2 0,67 0,87 0,63

+--------+-------+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

12 - 18, 20 . 2,2 3,7 1,7 0,15 0,22 0,10

29, 30 +-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

3,6 5,0 3,0 0,25 0,32 0,23

+-------+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

200 . 2,4 3,4 2,0 0,19 0,26 0,15

+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

3,6 5,1 3,0 0,25 0,33 0,23

+-------+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

400 . 4,1 5,8 3,5 0,28 0,38 0,26

+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

6,2 8,7 5,2 0,43 0,56 0,40

+-------+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

600 . 5,4 7,5 4,5 0,38 0,49 0,33

+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

8,1 11,4 6,8 0,57 0,74 0,53

+--------+-------+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

19 - 21 20 . 2,0 3,5 1,5 0,10 0,15 0,08

+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

3,4 4,8 2,8 0,24 0,31 0,22

+-------+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

200 . 2,9 4,0 2,4 0,20 0,26 0,18

+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

4,0 5,6 3,4 0,28 0,36 0,26

+-------+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

400 . 4,7 6,6 4,0 0,33 0,42 0,30

+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

6,6 9,2 5,5 0,46 0,59 0,42

+-------+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

600 . 5,7 8,0 4,8 0,42 0,54 0,31

+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

8,0 11,2 6,7 0,59 0,72 0,52

+-------+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

800 . 12,1 17,0 10,2 0,84 1,10 0,48

+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+

19,3 27,0 16,2 1,35 1,74 1,25

L--------+-------+-----------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+---------------+---------------+--------------------

 

5.18. , :

- - , - ;

- - .

, :

- ;

- , .

5.19. 5.7. . .

 

5.7


 

------------T---------------T---------------------------------------------

ࠠ 򠠠

⠠ -6 -1

ࠠ x 10 x 䠠

5.1 bt

, C

+-----T-----T-----T-----T-----T-----T----T----+

50 100 200 300 500 700 900 1100

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

1, 1 10,0 10,0 9,5 9,0 - - - -

---- ---- --- ---

頠 4,0 4,5 7,2 7,5

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

2, 6 9,0 9,0 8,0 7,0 6,0 5,0 - -

--- --- --- --- --- ---

頠 3,0 3,5 5,7 5,5 - -

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

3, 7 8,5 8,5 7,5 7,0 5,5 4,5 4,0 3,0

--- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

頠 2,5 3,0 5,2 5,5 - - - -

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

8 9,0 9,0 8,0 7,0 6,0 6,0 - -

--- --- --- --- --- ---

頠 2,0 3,0 5,4 5,3 5,0 5,0

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

4, 5, 8,5 8,5 7,5 7,0 5,5 4,5 4,0 3,0

9 - 11, --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

23 - 25 頠 1,5 2,5 4,9 5,3 4,5 3,5 3,1 2,0

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

12 - 18, 5,0 5,0 5,5 6,0 7,0 6,5 6,0 5,0

27, 29, 30 ---- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

頠 -4,0 0 3,0 4,3 6,0 5,8 5,4 4,5

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

19 - 21 8,0 8,0 7,0 6,5 5,5 4,5 4,0 3,5

--- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

頠 3,0 4,5 5,3 5,2 4,7 3,6 3,1 2,6

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

22 4,0 4,0 3,5 3,0 2,0 1,0 - -

---- --- --- --- --- ---

頠 -3,0 0 1,5 1,5 1,0 0

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

26 4,3 4,3 3,8 3,3 3,2 2,4 1,6 0,8

---- --- --- --- --- --- --- ----

頠 -0,7 0,3 1,8 2,0 2,2 1,4 0,6 -0,7

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

28 5,0 5,0 5,5 5,0 7,0 6,8 6,6 -

---- --- --- --- --- --- ---

頠 -4,0 0 3,1 3,3 6,0 6,1 5,9

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

31, 32 1,2 1,2 1,3 1,0 -1,2 0,7 0,8 -

---- ---- ---- --- ---- --- ---

頠 -7,8 -3,8 -1,1 0,7 -0,2 0 0,1

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

33 -3,0 -3,0 -3,5 -4,5 -3,0 -2,8 -3,5-4,7

---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- --------

頠 -8,0 -6,5 -5,3 -5,8 -4,5 -3,7 -4,5-5,7

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

34, 35 5,5 5,5 4,5 3,3 3,2 2,4 1,6 0,8

--- --- --- --- --- --- --- ----

頠 0,5 2,5 1,5 2,0 2,6 1,5 0,6 -0,2

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

36, 37 2,0 2,0 1,5 1,0 0,6 0,4 -3,7-8,6

---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- --------

頠 -3,0 -1,5 -0,8 -0,7 -1,2 -0,5 -4,6-9,5

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

. N 1 (,

-6 -1

) ࠠ 1 x 10 x .

bt

L--------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

5.20. 5.8. :

10 C/ ;

- .

 

5.8

 

------------T---------------T---------------------------------------------

ࠠ 򠠠

⠠ -6 -1

ࠠ x 10 x 䠠

5.1 cs

, C

+-----T-----T-----T-----T-----T-----T----T----+

50 100 200 300 500 700 900 1100

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

1 - 4 0,0 0,0 0,7 1,0 - - - -

--- --- --- ---

頠 6,0 5,5 3,0 2,5

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

5 - 11, 0,0 0,5 0,9 1,1 1,5 1,4 2,3 3,2

23 - 25 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

頠 7,0 6,5 3,5 2,8 2,5 2,4 3,2 4,2

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

12 - 18, 2,0 3,0 2,5 2,0 1,3 1,0 0,8 0,7

27, 29, 30 ---- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

頠 11,0 8,0 5,0 3,7 2,3 1,7 1,4 1,2

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

19 - 21 0,5 2,0 1,5 1,3 1,4 1,6 2,1 2,3

--- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

頠 5,5 5,5 3,2 2,6 2,2 2,5 3,0 3,2

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

22 4,0 5,0 4,7 4,2 3,7 3,6 - -

---- --- --- --- --- ---

頠 11,0 9,0 6,7 5,7 4,7 4,6

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

26 6,6 7,6 7,1 7,1 5,5 4,3 5,0 6,0

---- ---- --- --- --- --- --- ---

頠 11,6 11,6 9,1 8,4 6,5 5,3 6,0 7,0

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

28 4,0 5,0 4,6 4,1 1,3 1,2 1,0 -

---- ---- --- --- --- --- ---

頠 13,0 10,0 7,0 5,8 2,3 1,9 1,7

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

31, 32 4,0 4,0 3,5 3,0 2,0 1,0 - -

--- --- --- --- --- ---

頠 3,0 0 1,5 1,5 1,0 0

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

33 10,5 12,0 11,5 11,3 10,7 9,9 10,410,7

---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- --------

頠 15,5 15,5 13,3 12,6 12,2 10,8 11,411,7

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

34, 35 6,3 7,8 7,3 7,1 5,5 4,3 5,0 5,2

---- ---- ---- --- --- --- --- ---

頠 11,3 10,8 10,3 8,4 6,1 5,2 6,0 6,2

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

36, 37 1,7 3,2 3,0 4,8 5,0 5,1 9,3 14,3

--- --- --- --- --- --- --------

頠 6,7 6,7 5,3 5,1 6,8 6,0 10,215,2

+-----------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+

. ࠠ ࠠ 

cs

"".

L--------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

5.21. 5.1. 100 C 150 /3. 100 /3 .

5.22. 5.9 . 6.2.

 

5.9

 

------------T-------------------------------------------------------------

ࠠ , /( x C),

, C

5.1+----------T----------T----------T----------T--------T--------+

50 100 300 500 700 900

+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+--------+--------+

1, 1 1,51 1,37 1,09 - - -

+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+--------+--------+

20 2,68 2,43 1,94 1,39 1,22 1,19

+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+--------+--------+

21 1,49 1,35 1,37 1,47 1,57 1,63

+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+--------+--------+

2, 3, 6, 7, 1,51 1,37 1,39 1,51 1,62 -

13

+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+--------+--------+

10, 11 0,93 0,89 0,84 0,87 0,93 1,05

+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+--------+--------+

14 - 18 0,99 0,95 0,93 1,01 1,04 1,28

+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+--------+--------+

19 0,87 0,83 0,78 0,81 0,87 0,99

+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+--------+--------+

4, 5, 8, 9 0,81 0,75 0,63 0,67 0,70 -

+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+--------+--------+

12 0,93 0,88 0,81 0,90 - -

+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+--------+--------+

23 0,37 0,39 0,46 0,52 0,58 -

---- ---- ---- ---- ----

0,43 0,45 0,52 0,58 0,64

+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+--------+--------+

29 0,44 0,46 0,52 0,58 0,64 0,70

---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

0,50 0,52 0,58 0,64 0,70 0,76

+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+--------+--------+

24 0,27 0,29 0,34 0,40 0,45 0,51

---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

0,38 0,41 0,45 0,50 0,55 0,59

+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+--------+--------+

30 0,31 0,34 0,37 0,43 0,49 -

---- ---- ---- ---- ----

0,44 0,46 0,51 0,56 0,60

+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+--------+--------+

26, 28 0,21 0,23 0,28 0,33 0,37 0,42

+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+--------+--------+

22, 25, 27, 0,29 0,31 0,36 0,42 0,48 0,53

31, 32, 36

+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+--------+--------+

33 0,21 0,22 0,25 0,29 0,33 0,37

+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+--------+--------+

34, 35, 37 0,24 0,27 0,31 0,37 0,43 0,49

+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+--------+--------+

.

1. N 23N 29

: 1350,

1550; N 24 N 30 950 1250 /3.

,

.

2.  蠠

⠠ 頠 堠 

100 C ,

30%.

L--------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

 

5.23. , 5781, 10884, 6727, 4543, 5949 7 [3], :

:

240, ( ) : 300, 400, 500, 600, 800, 1000;

500;

:

;

: -1400 (-7), -1500 (-7) -1500 (-19).

400 C :

30;

- 1213, 2013, 0817, 121899, 202318, 4514142.

5.24. - 5.10. , .

 

5.10

 

---------------------------------------------T----------------------------

,

, C,

,

+----------T-----------------+

+--------------------------------------------+----------+-----------------+

:

240, 300 400 450

400, 500, 600, 600, 800, 1000 450 500

150 -

+--------------------------------------------+----------+-----------------+

:

500, 1200 - 1500, 1400, 1500 400 450

𠠠 𠠠

100 -

+--------------------------------------------+----------+-----------------+

:

32, 35, 35, 36 400 450

+--------------------------------------------+----------+-----------------+

:

30, 1213, 2013 500 700

202318 550 1000

12189, 451414, 2, 0817Ҡ 600 800

L--------------------------------------------+----------+------------------

 

 

5.25. , 0,95 ( 5.11). , , , . -3 16.13330.

 

5.11

 

----------------T-------------------T----------------------------

, 𦠠

ࠠ , 젠 R

sn

R , (/2)

s,ser

+---------------+-------------------+----------------------------+

240 6 - 40 240

+---------------+-------------------+----------------------------+

300 6 - 40 300

+---------------+-------------------+----------------------------+

400 6 - 40 400

+---------------+-------------------+----------------------------+

500 10 - 40 500

+---------------+-------------------+----------------------------+

600 10 - 40 600

+---------------+-------------------+----------------------------+

800 10 - 32 800

+---------------+-------------------+----------------------------+

1000 10 - 32 1000

+---------------+-------------------+----------------------------+

500 3 - 12 500

+---------------+-------------------+----------------------------+

1200 8 1200

𠠠

+---------------+-------------------+----------------------------+

1300 7 1300

𠠠

+---------------+-------------------+----------------------------+

1400 4, 5, 6 1400

𠠠

+---------------+-------------------+----------------------------+

1500 3 1500

𠠠

+---------------+-------------------+----------------------------+

1400 (-7) 15 1400

+---------------+-------------------+----------------------------+

1500 (-7) 6, 9, 12 1500

+---------------+-------------------+----------------------------+

1500 (-19) 14 1500

+---------------+-------------------+----------------------------+

30̠ - 590

+---------------+-------------------+----------------------------+

1213 - 410

+---------------+-------------------+----------------------------+

2013 - 440

+---------------+-------------------+----------------------------+

202318, - 195

12189,

0817Ҡ

+---------------+-------------------+----------------------------+

4514142̠ - 315

L---------------+-------------------+-----------------------------

 

5.26.

 

. (5.19)

 

:

- 240, 300, 400, 500;

- 600, 800;

- 1000, 500, , 1400, 1500;

- 30, 1213, 2013, 12189, 202318, 4514142, 0817.

5.12, 5.11 ( ).

 

5.12

 

----------------T------------------------------------------------

,

ࠠ , (/2)

+--------------------------------------T---------+

,

+--------------T-----------------------+ R

, R ( sc

s ),

R

sw

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

240 215 170 215

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

300 270 215 270

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

400 355 285 355

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

500 435 300 (400) 435

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

600 510 300 (360) 450

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

800 680 300 (400) 500

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

1000 815 300 (400) 500

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

500 415 300 (360) 400

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

1200 1000 300 (400) 500

𠠠

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

1300 1070 300 (400) 500

𠠠

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

1400 1170 300 (400) 500

𠠠

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

1500 1250 300 (400) 500

𠠠

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

1400 (-7) 1170 - (400) 500

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

1500 (-7) 1250 - (400) 500

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

1500 (-19) 1250 - (400) 500

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

30̠ 450 - (400) 500

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

1213 325 260 325

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

3013 345 275 345

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

202318, 150 120 150

12189,

0817Ҡ

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

4514142̠ 245 195 245

+---------------+--------------+-----------------------+---------+

. R ⠠

sc

.

L-----------------------------------------------------------------

 

( ) , 300 .

5.27. , 5.13.

 

5.13

 

-----------------T-------T---------------T-------------------------------------------

- 򠠠

, ⠠ , 

頠 st

ࠠ ࠠ

ࠠ st st

, C

+--------T----T----T----T----T----T----T----+

50 - 100200 300 400 450 500 550 600

+----------------+-------+---------------+--------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

240, 32, 馠 1,00 0,950,900,850,750,600,450,30

35, st頠 1,00 0,850,650,350,15 - - -

35, 36

+----------------+ +---------------+--------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

500 馠 1,00 0,900,850,600,450,250,120,05

頠 1,00 0,800,600,300,10 - - -

+----------------+ +---------------+--------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

1200 - 1500, 馠 1,00 0,850,700,500,350,250,150,10

𠠠 𠠠

1400, 1500 頠 1,00 0,750,550,250,05 - - -

+----------------+-------+---------------+--------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

240, 500, 馠 11,5 12,513,013,513,613,713,813,9

1200 - 1500, st 頠

𠠠 𠠠

32,

35,

35,

36, 1400,

1500

+----------------+-------+---------------+--------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

300, 400, 500 馠 1,00 1,000,950,850,750,600,400,30

st頠 1,00 0,900,750,400,20 - - -

+----------------+ +---------------+--------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

600, 800, 馠 1,00 0,850,750,650,550,450,300,20

1000 頠 1,00 0,800,650,300,10 - - -

+----------------+-------+---------------+--------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

300, 400, 馠 12,0 13,013,514,014,214,414,614,8

500, 600, st 頠

800, 1000

+----------------+-------+---------------+--------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

30̠ 馠 1,00 0,900,850,780,760,740,720,70

st頠 1,00 0,850,800,250,150,08 - -

+-------+---------------+--------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

馠 9,5 10,210,711,211,511,812,112,4

st 頠

+----------------+-------+---------------+--------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

1213, 2013 馠 1,00 0,950,860,800,730,650,530,40

st頠 1,00 0,930,830,700,450,13 - -

+-------+---------------+--------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

馠 12,0 12,613,314,014,314,715,015,3

st 頠

+----------------+-------+---------------+--------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

202318 馠 1,00 0,970,950,920,880,850,810,75

st頠 1,00 0,970,930,770,500,300,180,08

+-------+---------------+--------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

馠 10,3 11,312,413,614,114,715,215,7

st 頠

+----------------+-------+---------------+--------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

12189, 0817Ҧ 馠 1,00 0,720,650,620,580,600,570,56

st頠 1,00 0,720,650,620,580,550,500,40

+-------+---------------+--------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

馠 10,5 11,111,411,611,812,012,212,4

st 頠

+----------------+-------+---------------+--------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

4514142̠ 馠 1,00 0,860,780,720,680,640,600,56

st頠 1,00 0,860,780,700,630,550,430,30

+-------+---------------+--------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

馠 10,5 11,111,411,611,812,012,212,4

st 頠

+----------------+-------+---------------+--------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

600, 800, 馠 1,00 0,900,880,830,800,780,750,73

1000, s 頠

1200 - 1500,

𠠠 𠠠

1400, 1500,

32,

35,

35,

36, 30,

1213, 2013,

202318,

12189,

0817,

4514142̠

L----------------+-------+---------------+--------+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----

 

 

; . (5.20)

 

:

 

. (5.21)

 

5.13 :

(5.17, 7.5, 7.7, 7.8, 7.10, 7.11, 7.13, 7.14, 7.24, 7.26, 7.28, 7.43, 8.48);

- (5.17, 7.6 - 7.10, 7.12 - 7.14, 7.23, 7.25, 7.27, 7.28);

- (7.33, 7.57);

- (7.50);

- (9.1, 9.4).

 

 

5.28. . .

 

. (5.22)

 

( 5.14).

 

5.14

 

---------------------------------------T-------------------------

5

Š x 10 , (/2)

s

+--------------------------------------+-------------------------+

1213, 2013 2,2

+--------------------------------------+-------------------------+

240, 300, 30̠ 2,1

+--------------------------------------+-------------------------+

400, 500, 1200 - 1500, 202318, 2,0

𠠠 𠠠

0817, 12189, 4514142̠

+--------------------------------------+-------------------------+

600, 800, 1000, 1,9

+--------------------------------------+-------------------------+

500, 1400, 1500 1,8

L--------------------------------------+--------------------------

 

5.29.  

 

. (5.23)

 

5.13 :

- (5.18, 6.20, 7.5, 7.19, 8.10, 8.13, 8.15, 8.37, 8.47);

- (5.18, 6.21, 8.14, 8.38).

5.30. () , , ( 5.2), . .

 

 

5.2.

 

:

 

 

 

; (5.24)

 

 

 

. (5.25)

 

.

(5.23) - (5.20).

5.31. 5.13 .

 

6.

 

 

6.1. . .

6.2. , , ,

 

, (6.1)

 

v - , /.

, () , 16% , 23-01, 1 /.

6.3. . , , .

6.4. , , , ( 4.12). , , .

6.5. , /( x C), ( 5.9).

, , , 6.1.

 

6.1

 

-------------T---------------------------------------------------

e

,

i

/( x C), ,

C

+---T---T---T---T----T---T---T---T---T----T----T----+

-50 0 50 10 200 300400500700900 11001200

+------------+---+---+---+---+----+---+---+---+---+----+----+----+

ࠠ 6 8 10 12 17 22 - - - - - -

e

+------------+---+---+---+---+----+---+---+---+---+----+----+----+

ࠠ - - 10 10 10 12 15 20 40 70 120 150

i

L------------+---+---+---+---+----+---+---+---+---+----+----+-----

 

6.6. , .

6.7. 0,140 50 C; 0,095 - 100 C; 0,035 - 300 C 0,013 - 500 C.

6.8. , n-, n - 1 n

 

; (6.2)

 

-

 

; (6.3)

 

-

 

. (6.4)

 

, ,

 

, (6.5)

 

-

 

. (6.6)

 

 

. (6.7)

 

Q (/2)

 

, (6.8)

 

- ;

- .

 

, (6.9)

 

; ; ...; ; ;

- , , 2 x C/;

- , ;

- , , /( x C).

6.9. :

, 0,1 ;

, 0,1 ;

, 10%.

:

 

; (6.10)

 

 

; (6.11)

 

 

; (6.12)

 

 

. (6.13)

 

 

, (6.14)

 

- ;

- .

6.10. 20910 5.10.

6.11. , , . , .

6.12. , , :

- - 6.1;

- .

6.13. 6.2.

 

6.2

 

N
..




,
/3




,
C


, /( x C),




, C

50

100

300

500

700

900

1


1900

-

0,73

0,77

0,88

1,01

1,14

1,27

2


400

1150

0,13

0,14

0,17

0,20

0,23

0,27

3

800

1270

0,23

0,24

0,29

0,34

0,38

0,43

4

"

1000

1300

0,34

0,35

0,42

0,49

0,56

0,63

5

"

1300

1400

0,49

0,56

0,58

0,65

0,73

0,81

6


1900

-

1,60

1,62

1,70

1,78

1,85

1,93

7


1200 - 1400

1550

0,57

0,58

0,64

0,70

0,75

0,81

8

2000

-

1,79

1,80

1,86

1,90

1,95

2,01

9


2600

-

1,76

1,74

1,68

1,65

1,60

1,55

10


2700

-

6,00

5,90

5,36

4,82

4,30

3,75

11



2800

-

4,02

3,94

3,60

3,28

2,94

2,60

12



2950

-

2,74

2,71

2,54

2,36

2,18

2,01

13


1700

-

0,56

0,59

0,70

0,81

-

-

14



350

900

0,09

0,10

0,13

0,15

0,18

-

15

400

900

0,10

0,11

0,14

0,16

0,19

-

16


500

900

0,12

0,13

0,19

0,23

0,28

-

17

600

900

0,14

0,15

0,21

0,25

0,30

-

18



75 - 100

600

0,05

0,06

0,11

0,15

-

-

19


125

600

0,05

0,06

0,11

0,16

-

-

20

150

600

0,05

0,06

0,11

0,16

-

-

21





50 - 75

400

0,05

0,07

0,13

-

-

-

22

125

400

0,05

0,07

0,11

-

-

-

23

"

175

400

0,05

0,07

0,11

-

-

-

24

-
-

150

1100

0,05

0,06

0,12

0,18

0,24

0,31

25

300

1100

0,06

0,07

0,13

0,19

0,25

0,35

26

-

170

450

0,06

0,07

0,14

-

-

-

27


-
--

200

600

0,07

0,08

0,10

0,12

-

-

28

250

600

0,08

0,09

0,11

0,14

-

-

29

"

300

600

0,08

0,09

0,14

0,16

-

-

30


250

600

0,07

0,09

0,13

0,16

-

 

31

300

600

0,08

0,10

0,14

0,17

-

-

32

"

350

600

0,09

0,11

0,15

0,18

-

-

33


250

875

0,08

0,09

0,12

0,16

0,19

-

34

300

875

0,09

0,10

0,13

0,17

0,20

-

35

"

350

875

0,10

0,11

0,14

0,18

0,21

-

36

"

400

875

0,11

0,12

0,15

0,19

0,22

-

37

--

200

600

0,07

0,08

0,10

0,12

-

-

38



120

1200

0,06

0,07

0,10

0,14

0,17

0,21

39

350

500

0,08

0,09

0,11

-

-

-

40

400

500

0,09

0,10

0,12

-

-

-

41

300

600

0,08

0,09

0,11

0,13

-

-

42

350

600

0,08

0,09

0,11

0,14

-

-

43

"

400

600

0,09

0,10

0,12

0,14

-

-

44

200

500

0,08

0,09

0,13

-

-

-

45

-

250

600

0,09

0,11

0,16

0,21

-

-

46

300

600

0,10

0,11

0,16

0,21

-

-

47

"

350

600

0,10

0,12

0,17

0,22

-

-

48

-
-


-350

350

1150

0,11

0,12

0,15

0,19

0,22

0,29

49


500

900

0,01

0,03

0,06

0,10

0,13

0,17

50

򠠠

100

1100

0,07

0,09

0,14

0,20

0,26

0,31

51

150

1100

0,08

0,09

0,15

0,21

0,27

0,32

52

"

200

1100

0,08

0,10

0,15

0,21

0,27

0,33

53

򠠠

600

900

0,17

0,18

0,21

0,24

-

-

54

1000 - 1300

600

0,16

0,18

0,20

0,22

-

-

. (蠠
1 - 13) ( 14 - 54) 頠

100 C  젠 젠 젠
20 10%.

 

 

6.14. , , .

6.15. , , , , , .

6.16. , , 400 C,

 

. (6.15)

 

 

, (6.16)

 

- (5.9).

6.17. 400 C , , , , 400 C. , , . , , .

i- , ,

 

, (6.17)

 

- i- (5.9), i- . i- .

6.18. , , , 400 C, ( 6.1).

 

)

 

 

)

 

 

)

 

 

- 2 ; - 3 ; - 4 ;

.. - ;

, , ..., - 1-,

2-, ... i-

 

6.1.

,

 

6.19. . , :

 

; (6.18)

 

, (6.19)

 

, - .

:

:

 

; (6.20)

 

:

 

, (6.21)

 

, - , (5.23).

6.20. i-

 

. (6.22)

 

i- ,

 

. (6.23)

 

i-

 

. (6.24)

 

6.21. i- ( 6.2)

 

(6.25)

 

 

, (6.26)

 

, - , 5.7 i- .


 


 

- ; -

; - ;

- ; -

; .. -

 

6.2.

 

, :

 

; (6.27)

 

; (6.28)

 

; (6.29)

 

 

; (6.30)

 

. (6.31)

 

 

. (6.32)

 

6.22. , , , :

) , :

 

; (6.33)

 

, (6.34)

 

.

6.16 - 6.34: , , , , , , , , 6.16 - 6.22.

S S' :

 

; (6.35)

 

, (6.36)

 

- , 5.13 S S';

- , : - 1,1; - 1.

;

) ( 6.3, ) :

 

; (6.37)

 

, (6.38)

 

, - ;

, - , 5.7;

) :

 

; (6.39)

 

, (6.40)

 

- , 5.8 .

 

)

 

 

)

 

 

)

 

 

)

 

 

- ;

- ,

; - ,

; -

; .. -

 

6.3. (1),

(2) (3)

 

6.23. . .

 

. (6.41)

 

, ,

 

. (6.42)

 

, , (8.22):

 

;

 

;

 

;

 

.

 

6.24. , , , :

) , ( 6.3, ), :

 

; (6.43)

 

; (6.44)

 

) , ( 6.3, ), (6.43)

 

; (6.45)

 

) ( 6.3, ) :

 

; (6.46)

 

, (6.47)

 

- S S';

- ;

, - , (6.42) S S';

- , 5.7 ;

- 6.22;

- ;

) . 100 C 70 C, (6.37) (6.38), .

6.25. , , , (6.39) (6.40).

6.26. , , , .

6.27. - . , - , 6.3, - , 40 C, 60% 3 .

 

6.3

 

-------------------------T---------------------------------------

頠 󠠠

- , ,

,

+------------T--------------T-----------+

蠠 蠠

頠 頠

+------------------------+------------+--------------+-----------+

:

) 堠 40 35 30

) 蠠 30 25 20

) 砠 20 15 10

+------------------------+------------+--------------+-----------+

:

) - 72 60 48

) - 60 50 40

) -, 55 45 35

-堠

) - 50 40 30

) - 40 30 25

+------------------------+------------+--------------+-----------+

.

1. ( 2),

50 C,

-

30, 20, 10 1 C

10, 20, 40 60%

40, 20 10%

20, 40 60%.

2. ( 2, , , )

-蠠 蠠

5 - 20%, 7 - 60% 9 - 100%.

: -

, -

; -

.

3. ( 2, , , )

-蠠 蠠

. -

蠠 ⠠

70, 120, 300, 500 1000 C

20, 40, 60, 70 90%.

L-----------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

6.28. , , . ,

 

, (6.48)

 

, - , (6.18) (8.33).

(6.48) , , . , , , , .

6.29. , , . . . , .

6.30. , , , . , , , .

6.31. , . , , , .

6.32. , .

6.33. . . , , , .

6.34. , . 500 - 600 C .

, , , , ,

 

, (6.49)

 

- , (6.38, 6.40, 6.44, 6.45, 6.47);

D - , (8.33).

6.35. (6.49), . (6.40)

 

, (6.50)

 

- , .

. , .

6.36. . :

, , , ;

, 3 , 15%;

- 30%.

50% .

6.37. . , , , , 50% - , .

 

, (6.51)

 

, - , .

- . . , . , .

6.38. , , , . 52-103 [7] , , .

 

7.

 

 

7.1. ( 5.10).

7.2. , , , .

, , . , , ( 7.1).

 

 

7.1. ,

,

 

7.3. , 4.1.

- . , 7.15, . , .

7.4. , .

, ,

 

, (7.1)

 

- (5.5);

- , , .

 

. (7.2)

 

7.5. , , (7.1) .

 

, (7.3)

 

(5.7);

- (7.17), D (7.18 7.19) .

 

 

 

7.6. , ( ) , , . , , :

;

, ;

;

;

.

7.7. , , , , .

 

. (7.4)

 

,  

 

. (7.5)

 

, , 5.6.

7.1.

 

7.1

 

--------------T----T----T----T----T----T----T----T----T-----T------T------T------T-----

񠠠 2403004005005005406008001000 1200 1400 15001400

𠠠 𠠠 𠠠 1500

1300

𠠠

+-------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----+------+------+------+-----+

0,610,580,530,490,500,620,430,410,39 0,37 0,36 0,30 0,33

R

L-------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----+------+------+------+------

 

 

7.8. ( 7.2)

 

. (7.6)

 

 

7.2. ,

,

 

x

 

, (7.7)

 

M - .

 

: .

.

 

7.9. , ( ) , ( 7.3).

 

 

- ; -

 

7.3.

 

,

 

. (7.8)

 

(7.6), . , (7.8) ,

 

. (7.9)

 

x

 

. (7.10)

 

7.10. , , , 1/6 h - .

, , h .

:

 

;

 

;

 

.

 

7.11. . , , (7.6 7.8), .

(7.4) 7.1.

7.12. , ,

 

. (7.11)

 

, (7.11) 0,5x.

 

 

7.13.

 

, (7.12)

 

N - .

( 7.4)

 

 

; (7.13)

 

 

 

. (7.14)

 

 

7.4. ,

,

 

N

 

; (7.15)

 

. (7.16)

 

, ,

 

. (7.17)

 

 

. (7.18)

 

7.14.

 

, (7.19)

 

J, - ;

, - , (5.9 5.18);

- , ,

 

, (7.20)

 

, - ( ) .

 

, 0,3. (7.21)

 

7.15. ()

 

, (7.22)

 

- , (6.34, 6.38, 6.44, 6.45, 6.47);

- (7.17).

7.16. , , ,

 

, (7.23)

 

- , (6.16);

- , , , (5.20);

- ;

- , . :

, , , , ;

- , . 7.17.

 

7.2

 

-----------------T----------------T--------------T---------------

l /h 6 - 12 16 20

0

+----------------+----------------+--------------+---------------+

l /d 5 - 10 14 17

0

+----------------+----------------+--------------+---------------+

蠠 0,90 0,80 0,70

L----------------+----------------+--------------+----------------

 

7.17. , .

l :

) - 1,0l;

) () - 2,0l;

) , :

, ................................ 0,7l;

, ................. 0,9l;

) ,

, :

, ................................ 1,5l;

, ................. 2,0l;

) :

, .......................................... 0,5l;

, ........................... 0,8l;

) :

, .......................................... 0,8l;

, ........................... 1,2l.

 

 

7.18. :

:

 

, (7.24)

 

- ;

, S S' ( 7.5, ):

 

; (7.25)

 

; (7.26)

 

, S S' ( 7.5, ):